Mechanism Behind A Phone Call

0
5436
girl- talking- on-cellphone

Call chesinapudu manamu matladedi first mana phone lo unna microphone input ga tesukoni dani mana voice ni digital format lo ki marsthundi…

EE digital format is a combination of 1s and 0s ee digital format ni mana phone loni antenna electromagnetic waves ga marchi send chesthundi by wave characteristics like amplitude frequencies and combinations with high and low frequencies….

1 and 0

AA transmission ni receives chesukunapude manaki call anedi possible awthundi….

Example: X India nundi USA lo unna y ki call chesanu ….ring aendi…y lift chesadu call…
so na phone lo voice->micro phone->digital->antenna->electromagnectic->y phone receives that signal

“call is made”

Ikkada Two Questions:-

Electromagnetic waves anevi weak ga untae long distances travel cheyalevu…mari call lo countries batti ela matladukuntunamu…?

Manamu call chesina phone vere country lo unna ela waves aa phone ki reach awthunae with in seconds?

#Cell_Tower

cell-phone-tower

Electromagnetic waves weak ga untae kabatti Earth Area mothani Hexagonal cells ga divide chesaru…. (hexagonal shape ee andukante adhi mathrame cell ki cell ki madhyalo gaps ni create cheyau…elanti shape places ni aena easy ga divide cheyavachu “with out gaps” in between them)

Mana phone nundi transfer aena electro magnetic wave ni tower receive chesukoni dani tower kindha install chesi unna base trasmission box ki send chesthundi….aa box aa wave ni oka high frequncy light pulse laga marchi adhi destination tower ki send chesthundi through optical fibers….

Every cell has one tower…
Each tower has their own frequency….
Cell towers anni ground lo optical fibre dawara connect ae untae…
Akkada destination tower aa high frequency light pulse ni receive chesukoni destination phone ki pamputhundi….

Ikkada pyn example lo phone usa lo undi ante destination tower kosam world motham vethukunda ante No…mari edhi ela ante…? SIM

#Sim

sim

Manamu sim konapude danilo manamu ee tower dagara unamu ani update awthundi…
ee anni towers ni monitor chese center okati untadi adhe Mobile Switching Center….
manamu call chesina phone ekkada unna dani destination tower kanukune responsbuility ee MSC dhi…

Mana sims lo unna data motham ee msc lo save ae untadi…mana cell datti vere cell towers ki marina (travelling to out of town/country) manamu ippudu ee tower dagara unamu ani sim update chesukoni aa info ni MSC ki send chesthundi so ala manamu ekkada nundi call chesina direct ga aa phone unna cell tower ki fast ga reach awthundi…

Ikkada enko point mana high-frequency wave anedi destination phone e ela receive chesukuntadi…other phones ki kuda receivers untae ga…

So manamu dial chesina number ke call ela connect awthundi….???

#Frequency_Spectrum
(ee spectrum ki unna power emits 2004 lo chusamu…ippudu technology lo politics avasarama ra…so back to point)

Each subscriber allocated a frequency range but those are limited and cell companies have a million customers… to overcome these two techniques were used…(simple ga chepstanu)

#Frequency_Slot_Distribution
Different frequency slots are carefully allocated to cell tower…

#Multiple_Access_Technique
On this tech, all available frequencies are distributed to active users in the cell area

1g to 5g

#Why_Diff_Gs_Evolved
#1G:
+ve: first phone allowed to carry without cables.
-ve: transmits in the analog format we can easily alter/catch those signals…so poor safety.

#2G:-
SMS and revolution of data service(internet) digital multiple access technologies, CDMA.

#3G:-
Digital multiple access with high bandwidth.

#4G:-
High speed with multiple inputs and multiple-output technology.

#5G
Driverless cars/smart homes.